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Glossary of Printing Terms

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1708 Gallery - 2014
Ability School - 2014
Academy of Fine Arts - 2014
ACLAMO Family Centers - 2014
Acting For Young People - 2014
Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Campaign of North Carolina - 2014
Affirmations - 2014
Africa Outreach - 2014
The Akshaya Patra Foundation USA - 2014
Alba Soccer Association Inc - 2014
Alice Aycock Poe Center for Health Education - 2014
Alliance Center for Independence - 2014
Americans Helping Americans - 2014
Amazement Square - 2014
The American Network of Community Options and Resources - 2014
American Warrior Fund Inc - 2014
Annie Malone Children & Family Service Center - 2014
Ansley Park Conservancy, Inc - 2014
APDA Richmond Metro Chapter - 2014
Appalachian Trail Museum Society - 2014
The Arc Middlesex County - 2014
Art Access - 2014
Asheville Buncombe Community Relations Council - 2014
Athens Community Council on Aging - 2014
Atherton Police Department - 2014
Atlanta Pet Partners, Inc - 2014
The Austin Harmony Project - 2014
Avante Life Ministries - 2014
Baby's Bounty MC Inc - 2014
Baptist Theological Seminary - 2014
Barnstone Art for Kids - 2014
Barrett Foundation, Inc - 2014
Bastrop Community Senior Center - 2014
Bearded Collie Foundation for Health (BeaCon for Health) - 2014
Beyond Stage 4 - 2014
Birth Matters Virginia - 2014
The Black Academy of Arts and Letters - 2014
B.O.K. Ranch - 2014
Bon Air Artists Association - 2014
Boston Jewish Music Festival - 2014
Bread and Water for Africa - 2014
Bread of Life Fellowship, Inc - 2014
Brethren Woods Camp and Retreat - 2014
Brown Grand Opera House Inc - 2014
Brunswick Downtown Association - 2014
Burning Coal Theatre Company - 2014
The Bundy Museum of History and Art - 2014
Calvary Community Medical Clinic, Inc - 2014
Camp Alkulana of the Richmond Baptist Association - 2014
Camp Lutherlyn - 2014
Camp Orchard Hill - 2014
Cancer Connection - 2014
Care Net Pregnancy Resource Center - 2014
Care4Kids, Inc - 2014
CARITAS - 2014
Carmelite Carefree Village - 2014
Cat Depot - 2014
Catman2 Inc - 2014
The Cat Network Inc - 2014
Center for Economic Options - 2014
C.G. Jung Society of Atlanta - 2014
Chabad of Northern Monmouth County - 2014
Challenge Discovery Projects - 2014
Challenging Young Minds - 2014
CHAMPS Charter High School for the Arts - 2014
Charity and Love, Inc - 2014
Charlotte Bilingual Preschool - 2014
Chastain Park Conservancy - 2014
Chesapeake Roller Derby - 2014
Cheyenne Little Theatre Players - 2014
Chico Theater Company Inc - 2014
Choices in Childbirth - 2014
Christian Fellowship Home - 2014
Christian Relief Services - 2014
Christy's Courage Foundation - 2014
CincySmiles Foundation - 2014
Clarita's House Outreach Ministry, Inc - 2014
Class Acts Arts - 2014
Colombianitos - 2014
Common Knowledge Scholarship Foundation - 2014
Communities In Schools of Richmond - 2014
Community Council of Metropolitan Atlanta, Inc - 2014
Community Pregnancy Center of Lake Norman - 2014
Comprehensive Addiction Programs, Inc. - 2014
Computer Mentors Group - 2014
Consumer Advocates for RCFE Reform - 2014
Cooperative Christian Ministry - 2014
Covenant Counseling - 2014
Craven Smart Start - 2014
Crispus Attucks Development Corporation - 2014
Cross Bar X Youth Ranch - 2014
Croswell Opera House and Fine Arts Association - 2014
CT Voices for Children - 2014
CUMAC - 2014
Danbury Youth Services - 2014
Daybreak of Depaul USA - 2014
Discovery Gateway Children's Museum - 2014
Dove Recovery House for Women - 2014
dreamMakerS, Inc - 2014
Durham Crisis Response Center - 2014
Durham Economic Resource Center (DERC) - 2014
Eastside CDC/LEAP - 2014
EcoHealth Alliance - 2014
Edmonds Senior Center - 2014
Edventure More - 2014
ElderServe, Inc - 2014
Emmaus Community of Pittsburgh - 2014
Energy Conservation Associates, Inc - 2014
Fairy Godmother Project, Richmond Chapter - 2014
Famicos Foundation - 2014
Family Promise of Gwinnett County, Inc - 2014
FAMM Foundation - 2014
Fancy Cats Rescue Team - 2014
Food Not Bombs Free Skool - 2014
The Flowertown Players, Inc - 2014
Fredericksburg Area Museum & Cultural Center - 2014
FRIDA, Inc - 2014
Friends 4 Recovery Whole Health Center - 2014
Friends After Diagnosis, Inc - 2014
Friends of Bristol Valley Playhouse Foundation, Inc - 2014
Friends of the Fort Worth Herd - 2014
Friends of Shockoe Hill Cemetery 2014
Friends of Van Cortlandt Park - 2014
Frontier Labourers for Christ - 2014
Fullerton Bears - 2014
General Council of the Assemblies of God, HealthCare Ministries - 2014
Georgetown Palace Theatre - 2014
Giant Steps Therapeutic Equestrian Center - 2014
Girls on the Run Puget Sound - 2014
GIST Cancer Research Fund - 2014
Glynn Art Association - 2014
Gospel Network International Ministries - 2014
Grand Prairie Wellness Center - 2014
Greyston Foundation - 2014
Globe Aware - 2014
Gloucester Arts on Main - 2014
G.W. Buck Boys and Girls Club - 2014
HealthSTAT - 2014
Healthy Babies Project, Inc - 2014
Heart Havens - 2014
Helping Haitian Angels - 2014
Hispanic Counseling Center - 2014
Hero Dogs, Inc - 2014
Highline Area Foodbank - 2014
Historic Gordonsville Inc - 2014
Historic Richmond - 2014
Historical Society of Upper St. Clair - 2014
Historic Union Cemetery - 2014
Homework Central - 2014
The Hope Alliance - 2014
Hopewell Elementary School PTO Science Fair - 2014
Hospice of the Panhandle - 2014
Hudson Valley SPCA - 2014
Humane Society of Jackson County - 2014
Huntington's Disease Youth Organization - 2014
Indianapolis Algebra Project, Inc - 2014
Indian Hills Camp - 2014
Industrial ISD Education Foundation - 2014
I Have a Dream of Atlanta, A.D. Williams Chapter - 2014
Inova Partnership for Healthier Kids - 2014
The In Series - 2014
Institute For Positive Living - 2014
ISKCON of Baltimore New Kulina Gram, Inc - 2014
Jazz Institute of Chicago - 2014
The Ivey - 2014
Jesus Focus Ministry - 2014
Jewish Family Service Agency - 2014
Juvenile Services Program, Inc - 2014
Kalmat Foundation Inc - 2014
KLM Scholarship Foundation - 2014
Lake Lundgren Bible Camp - 2014
Leadership Winston-Salem - 2014
Latin Ballet of Virginia - 2014
Lead4Life, Inc - 2014
Lauren's House 4 Positive Change Inc - 2014
Life Adventure Center - 2014
The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society - 2014
Life Concepts d/b/a Quest, Inc - 2014
LINC - 2014
Long Beach Community Players, Inc - 2014
Long Island Coalition for the Homeless - 2014
Long Island Head Start - 2014
Lotus Survival Foundation - 2014
Louisiana Homa Inc - 2014
Lupus Alliance of LIQ - 2014
Lyme Research Alliance - 2014
Maine Education Services - 2014
The Maisha Project - 2014
Make-A-Wish Central And South Texas - 2014
Marshall Legacy Institute - 2014
Meals On Wheels Delaware - 2014
Melanoma Foundation of New England - 2014
Mental Health America of Northern Kentucky and Southwest Ohio - 2014
Mental Health Association of Nassau County - 2014
Michigan Lupus Foundation - 2014
Michigan Shakespeare Festival - 2014
Midland Community Theatre - 2014
Montclair Art Museum - 2014
Montessori Center Room - 2014
Montessori Schools of Snohomish County - 2014
Montgomery Community Media - 2014
NAMI Fresno - 2014
Nashville CARES - 2014
National Association of Elementary School Prinicpals Foundation - 2014
National Orphan Train Complex - 2014
National Stuttering Association - 2014
National Tongan-American Society - 2014
Nazareth Children's Home, Inc - 2014
Neighborhood Good Samaritan Center (NGSC) - 2014
NENY Safety & Health Council Inc - 2014
New Venture Theatre - 2014
Nicholas Newlin Foundation/Newlin Grist Mill - 2014
Noise Free America - 2014
NORML Foundation - 2014
North Carolina Association of Educators - 2014
North Carolina Bluegrass Association - 2014
North Carolina FIRST Robotics - 2014
Northwest Leadership Foundation - 2014
Note in the Pocket - 2014
Ohio Parks and Recreation Association - 2014
Oregon Supported Living Program - 2014
Our Mothers Home of Southwest FL Inc - 2014
Out of the Darkness Community Walk (Richmond, VA) - 2014
The Paddock Foundation - 2014
Painted Bride Art Center - 2014
Palmetto Housing and Assistance Coalition - 2014
Paradise Valley Mothers of Multiples - 2014
Parham Bears Youth Football & Cheering Association - 2014
Park Springs Christian Camp - 2014
Partners In Learning Child Development and Family Resource Center - 2014
Paws 4 Autism - 2014
People Helping People - 2014
Philippines Humanitarian - 2014
Phoenix Computers - 2014
Pine Knob Theatre, Inc - 2014
Plainview Nursery School - 2014
Pleasant Prairie Baptist Church - 2014
Pledge 5 Foundation - 2014
POBLO International Ministries - 2014
Power House International Ministries - 2014
Prevention First - 2014
The Princess Lee Foundation for Abused and Neglected Children - 2014
Project Yoga Richmond - 2014
Psychiatric Foundation of NC - 2014
Rainbow Village, Inc - 2014
Raven Theatre Company - 2014
The Rape, Child and Family Abuse Crisis Council of Salisbury-Rowan, Inc - 2014
Reaching Maximum Independence, Inc - 2014
Rebuild HiTor Animal Shelter - 2014
Rebuilding Together Philadelphia - 2014
Reggie McKenzie Foundation - 2014
Retreat Inc - 2014
Richmond Animal League - 2014
Richmond Justice Initiative - 2014
Richmond's First Baptist Church - 2014
Road Less Traveled Productions - 2014
Rock Mountain Bible Camp - 2014
Rookies Reward - 2014
Running Strong for American Indian Youth - 2014
Rx Partnership - 2014
SADS Foundation - 2014
The Salvation Army of Lee, Hendry, and Glades Counties - 2014
Sav-A-Life Pregnancy Test Center - 2014
San Francisco Achievers - 2014
Thomas And Sandra Usher Youth Camp, AKA Summer's Best Two Weeks Citikidz - 2014
Section on Women's Health APTA - 2014
The Sergei Foundation - 2014
Services for Older Citizens - 2014
Shakespeare on the Sound - 2014
Shropshire Music Foundation - 2014
Sickle Cell Foundation of Georgia, Inc - 2014
Simeone Foundation Automotive Museum - 2014
SonRise Equestrian Foundation - 2014
S.O.S. Pets, Inc - 2014
South Carolina Lutheran Retreat Centers - 2014
Special Spaces SWPA - 2014
St. Ann Catholic Church - 2014
STARS Computing Corporation - 2014
St. Catherine's Center for Children - 2014
St. HOPE Public Schools - 2014
Streamside Camp - 2014
Studio Two Three - 2014
Supporting Heroes Inc - 2014
Talbert House - 2014
Tanks Cat Rescue - 2014
Taylor Reading Corps - 2014
Team Management 2000 Inc Family Services - 2014
Teatro Dallas - 2014
Theatre Tuscaloosa - 2014
Tri-City Tigers AAU - 2014
Trinity Community Coalition Outreach, Inc - 2014
Thunder Bay Theatre - 2014
Tubatulabals of Kern Valley - 2014
Unified Healing Veterans - 2014
USARA - 2014
Utah Asian Festival - 2014
VCU Parkinson's and Movement Disorders Center - 2014
Vinelanders Community Land Trust - 2014
Vineyard Christian Fellowship - 2014
Virginia Blood Services - 2014
Virginia Breast Cancer Foundation - 2014
Virginia Sheriffs' Institute - 2014
Virginia Supportive Housing - 2014
Visiting Neighbors - 2014
Virginia Sexual and Domestic Violence Action Alliance - 2014
West Side Neighborhood Housing Services - 2014
West Texas Parkinsonism Society - 2014
Wilmington Area Rebuilding Ministry - 2014
Wilmington Interfaith Hospitality Network - 2014
Wolf Creek Indian Village and Museum - 2014
Women In Jazz South Florida Inc - 2014
Women Who Care Ministries - 2014
Woodcrest Retreat - 2014
World Music/CRASHarts - 2014
Wyoming Youth Services - 2014
X-Seeds, Inc - 2014
Youth Matter Inc - 2014
Youth Volunteer Corps - 2014
YWCA of Richmond - 2014
Jobs
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Spirit of Enterprise - Austin Redden
Spirit of Enterprise - John Millacci
Spirit of Enterprise - Brian Buxton
Spirit of Enterprise - Stephen Savage
Collapse 2013 Non-Profit Pages2013 Non-Profit Pages
Academy of Fine Arts
ACLAMO Family Centers
Acting For Young People
Affirmations
The Akshaya Patra Foundation USA
Alba Soccer Association Inc.
Alice Aycock Poe Center for Health Education
Alliance Center for Independence
Americans Helping Americans
The American Network of Community Options and Resources
American Warrior Fund Inc.
Annie Malone Children & Family Service Center
Ansley Park Conservancy, Inc.
APDA Richmond Metro Chapter
Appalachian Trail Museum Society
The Arc Middlesex County
Art Access
Asheville Buncombe Community Relations Council
Atherton Police Department
Atlanta Pet Partners, Inc.
The Austin Harmony Project
Avante Life Ministries
Baptist Theological Seminary
Barnstone Art for Kids
Barrett Foundation, Inc.
Bearded Collie Foundation for Health (BeaCon for Health)
Beyond Stage 4
Birth Matters Virginia
B.O.K. Ranch
Boston Jewish Music Festival
Bread and Water for Africa
Bread of Life Fellowship, Inc
Brown Grand Opera House Inc.
Brunswick Downtown Association
The Bundy Museum of History and Art
Calvary Community Medical Clinic, Inc
Camp Alkulana of the Richmond Baptist Association
Camp Lutherlyn
Care Net Pregnancy Resource Center
Care4Kids, Inc.
CARITAS
Carmelite Carefree Village
Catman2 Inc.
Center for Economic Options
C.G. Jung Society of Atlanta
Chabad of Northern Monmouth County
Challenging Young Minds
CHAMPS Charter High School for the Arts
Charity and Love, Inc.
Charlotte Bilingual Preschool
Chastain Park Conservancy
Chesapeake Roller Derby
Cheyenne Little Theatre Players
Chico Theater Company, Inc
Choices in Childbirth
Christian Fellowship Home
Christian Relief Services
CincySmiles Foundation
Colombianitos
Common Knowledge Scholarship Foundation
Communities In Schools of Richmond
Community Council of Metropolitan Atlanta, Inc.
Comprehensive Addiction Programs, Inc.
Computer Mentors Group
Consumer Advocates for RCFE Reform
Cooperative Christian Ministry
Covenant Counseling
Craven Smart Start
Crispus Attucks Development Corporation
Croswell Opera House and Fine Arts Association
CT Voices for Children
Danbury Youth Services
Durham Crisis Response Center
Durham Economic Resource Center (DERC)
Eastside CDC-LEAP
Edmonds Senior Center
Edventure More
ElderServe, Inc.
Emmaus Community of Pittsburgh
Energy Conservation Associates, Inc.
Fairy Godmother Project - Richmond Chapter
Famicos Foundation
Family Promise of Gwinnett County, Inc.
FAMM Foundation
Fancy Cats Rescue Team
FRIDA, Inc.
Friends 4 Recovery Whole Health Center
Friends After Diagnosis, Inc.
Friends of Bristol Valley Playhouse Foundation, Inc.
Friends of Van Cortlandt Park
Frontier Labourers for Christ
Fullerton Bears
Georgetown Palace Theatre
Girls on the Run Puget Sound
GIST Cancer Research Fund
Glynn Art Association
Greyston Foundation
G.W. Buck Boys and Girls Club
HealthSTAT
Healthy Babies Project, Inc.
Helping Haitian Angels
Highline Area Foodbank
Hispanic Counseling Center
Historical Society of Upper St. Clair
Homework Central
The Hope Alliance
Hudson Valley SPCA
Humane Society of Jackson County
Indianapolis Algebra Project, Inc
Industrial ISD Education Foundation
I Have a Dream of Atlanta, A.D. Williams Chapter
Institute For Positive Living
The Ivey
Jesus Focus Ministry
Juvenile Services Program, Inc.
Leadership Winston-Salem
The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society
LINC
Long Island Coalition for the Homeless
Long Island Head Start
Lotus Survival Foundation
Louisiana Homa Inc
Lupus Alliance of LIQ
Lyme Research Alliance
Make-A-Wish Central And South Texas
Meals On Wheels Delaware
Melanoma Foundation of New England
Mental Health America of Northern Kentucky and Southwest Ohio
Mental Health Association of Nassau County
Michigan Lupus Foundation
Midland Community Theatre
Montclair Art Museum
Montessori Center Room
Montessori Schools of Snohomish County
Montgomery Community Media
NAMI Fresno
Nashville CARES
National Orphan Train Complex
National Stuttering Association
Nazareth Children's Home, Inc.
Neighborhood Good Samaritan Center (NGSC)
NENYSafety & Health Council Inc.
New Venture Theatre
Nicholas Newlin Foundation/Newlin Grist Mill
Noise Free America
NORML Foundation
North Carolina Association of Educators
North Carolina Bluegrass Association
North Carolina FIRST Robotics
Northwest Leadership Foundation
Note in the Pocket
Ohio Parks and Recreation Association
Oregon Supported Living Program
Our Mothers Home of Southwest FL Inc.
Out of the Darkness Community Walk (Richmond, Va.)
Painted Bride Art Center
Paradise Valley Mothers of Multiples
Park Springs Christian Camp
Paws 4 Autism
People Helping People
Philippines Humanitarian
Pleasant Prairie Baptist Church
Prevention First
The Princess Lee Foundation for Abused and Neglected Children
Psychiatric Foundation of NC
Reaching Maximum Independence, Inc.
Retreat Inc
Richmond Justice Initiative
Richmond's First Baptist Church
Rock Mountain Bible Camp
Rookies Reward
Running Strong for American Indian Youth
SADS Foundation
The Salvation Army of Lee, Hendry and Glades Counties
Sav-A-Life Pregnancy Test Center
SB2W
Section on Women's Health - APTA
The Sergei Foundation
Shakespeare on the Sound
Shropshire Music Foundation
Simeone Foundation Automotive Museum
S.O.S. Pets, Inc
South Carolina Lutheran Retreat Centers
Special Spaces SWPA
STARS Computing Corp.
St. Catherine's Center for Children
St. HOPE Public Schools SHPS
Streamside Camp
Supporting Heroes Inc.
Talbert House
Theatre Tuscaloosa
Tri-City Tigers AAU
Tubatulabals of Kern Valley
Unified Healing Veterans
USARA
Utah Asian Festival
VCU Parkinson's and Movement Disorders Center
Vinelanders Community Land Trust
Vineyard Christian Fellowship
Virginia Breast Cancer Foundation
Virginia Sheriffs' Institute
Visiting Neighbors
VSDVAA
West Side Neighborhood Housing Services
West Texas Parkinsonism Society
Wilmington Area Rebuilding Ministry
Wilmington Interfaith Hospitality Network
Women In Jazz South Florida Inc.
Woodcrest Retreat
Wyoming Youth Services
X-Seeds, Inc.
Youth Matter, Inc.
YWCA of Richmond
Accordion fold

Bindery term, two or more parallel folds which open like an accordion.

Against the Grain

At right angles to direction of paper grain. Also known as Across the Grain.

Alteration

Change in specifications after production has begun.

*Artboard

Alternate term for mechanical art.

Author's corrections

Also known as "Author's Alterations". Change in specifications after production has begun.

Back up

Printing the second side of a press sheet already printed on one side.

Banding

Method of packaging printed pieces of paper using rubber or paper bands.

Basis weight

Weight in pounds of a paper cut to the basic size for its grade.

Bind

To fasten sheets or signatures with wire, thread, glue, or some other means.

Bindery

The finishing department of a printing company, or a firm that specializes in finishing printed products.

Blanket

The thick rubber mat on a printing press that transfers ink from the plate to the substrate (paper).

Bleed

Printed image that goes beyond the edge of the sheet after trimming.

Blind embossing

An image pressed into a sheet without ink or foil.

*Blueline

A blue photographic proof used to check position of all page elements.

*Board

Alternate term for mechanical.

Bond & carbon

Business form with paper and carbon paper.

Bond paper

Strong durable paper grade typically used for letterhead, business forms, or other office documents.

Break for color

Also known as a color break. To separate mechanically or by software the parts of an image that are to be printed in different colors.

Brightness

The brilliance, reflectance, or relative whiteness of paper.

Bulk

Thickness of paper stock in thousandths of an inch or number of pages per inch.

Bulk pack

Boxing printed product without wrapping or banding. Also known as carton pack.

Burn

Exposing a printing plate to high intensity light or placing an image on a printing plate by light.

Butt

Joining images without overlapping.

Butt fit

Printed colors that overlap by one row of dots so they appear to butt.

Carbonless

Pressure sensitive paper, typically used for business forms, that does not use carbon.

Caliper

Paper thickness in thousandths of an inch.

*Camera-ready copy

Print-ready mechanical art.

Carload

A truck load of paper weighing approximately 40000 pounds.

Case bind

A type of binding used in making hard cover books.

Cast coated Coated paper with a high gloss reflective finish.

*Chrome

A term for a transparency, short for Kodachrome or Ectacrome.

Coated paper

A clay-coated printing paper with a smooth finish.

Collate

A finishing term for gathering paper in a precise order.

Color bar

A quality control mechanism using bands or strips of ink color on the tail of a press sheet.

Color correction

Methods of improving color fidelity and/or quality of color reproduction.

Color filter

Filters used in making color separations, especially during the scanning process.

*Color key

Color proof that uses layers of colored film to show color breaks.

Color matching system

A system of formulated ink colors used for standardized communication of printed colors.

Color separations

The process of preparing artwork, photographs, transparencies, or computer-generated art for printing by separating into the four primary process printing colors, which are cyan, magenta, yellow, and black.

Comb bind

A binding system that uses a plastic comb inserted into specially punched holes.

*Composite film

Combining two or more images on one or more pieces of film.

Continuous-tone copy

Illustrations, photographs or computer files that contain gradient tones from black to white or light to dark colors.

Contrast

The tonal change or dynamic range in color from light to dark.

Copy

All furnished material or data used in the production of a printed product.

Cover paper

A heavy printing paper used to cover books and booklets, to make presentation folders, postcards, etc.

Crash number

Numbering paper by imaging on the first sheet which is then transferred to all parts of the printed set.

Crimping

Special puncture marks that hold multiple-part business forms together.

*Cromalin

Trade name for DuPont color proofs.

Crop

To cut off parts of a picture or image.

Crop marks

Printed lines showing where to trim a printed sheet.

Crossover

Printing across the gutter or from one page to the facing page of a publication.

Cyan

One of four standard process colors. Cyan is a shade of blue.

Densitometer

A quality control device that measures the density of printing ink.

Density

An optical measure of color or darkness of colorant (ink) relative to the substrate (paper) in a printed image.

Diazo

A light-sensitive coating used on printing plates.

Die

Metal rule or imaged block used to cut or place an image on paper in the finishing process.

Die cutting

Cutting shapes in or out of a sheet of paper by means of a die.

Dot

An element of halftones. Using a loupe or magnifying glass, you will see that printed images are composed of many small dots.

Dot gain

A term used to explain the difference in printed dot size between the imaged dot on a printing plate and the printed dot on a press sheet.

Double burn

Exposing a printing plate to multiple images.

Draw-down

A sample of ink and paper used to evaluate ink colors.

Drop-out

Portions of artwork that do not print.

Dummy

A rough layout of a printed piece showing position and finished size,

Duotone

A halftone image made up of two printed colors.

*Dylux

Photo-sensitive paper made by DuPont and used for blue lines.

Emboss

Pressing an image into paper so that it will create a raised relief.

Emulsion

The light-sensitive coating found on printing plates.

Eurobind

A patented method of binding perfect bound books so they will open and lay flat.

Facsimile (FAX)

The process of converting graphic images into electronic signals for transmission over phone lines.

*Film RIP

See RIP.

*Flat

An assembly of negatives taped to masking materials. Used for conventional plate making.

Flood

To cover a printed page with an ink, varnish, or polymer coating. Typical terms are flood varnish, or flood coating.

Flop

The reverse side of an image or press sheet.

Foil

A metallic or pigmented coating on plastic sheets or rolls used in foil stamping and foil embossing.

Foil emboss

Foil stamping and embossing an image onto paper using a die.

Foil stamping

Using a die to place a metallic or pigmented image on paper.

Four-color process

The process of combining four basic subtractive primary colors (cyan, magenta, yellow, and black) to create a printed color picture or colors composed from the basic four colors.

French fold

Two folds at right angles to each other.

*Galley proof

Text copy before it is put into a mechanical layout or desktop layout.

Gang

Optimizing the use a printing press by using the maximum sheet size to print multiple customer jobs on the same sheet. This spreads the cost of plate making and make-ready between multiple customers, and helps save money.

Generation

Number of steps of reproduction from original copy. A first-generation reproduction yields the best quality. Theoretically, digital reproduction has no generation steps.

Ghost bars

A quality control mechanism used to reduce image artifacts caused by heat or chemical contamination during the on-press printing process.

Ghosting

An image artifact that appears on a printed sheet where it was not intended.

Gloss

A shiny appearance that reflects light, usually describes the surface characteristic of a printing paper, or a coating that is applied during the printing process.

Grain

The direction in which the paper fibers lie.

Grippers

The metal fingers on a printing press that hold the paper as it passes through the press.

Hairline

A very thin printed line or gap measuring about 1/100 inch.

Halftone

The process of converting a continuous tone image to dots for printing, or a term for the converted image itself.

Hard copy

The output of a computer printer, or typed text.

Hickey

An image artifact composed of multiple undesirable spots that appear in the printed image from dust, lint, dried ink, dirt, or other contamination.

High-bulk paper

A paper that is thicker than its standard basis weight.

Highlight

The lightest or least dense areas in an image or halftone.

Image area

Portion of a press sheet on which ink can appear.

Imposition

Positioning printed pages so they will fold in the proper order. Today, this is achieved by use of imposition software.

Impression

The process of putting an image on paper.

Imprint

Imaging onto a previously printed image.

Indicia

Postal information printed on a piece that is to be mailed. It typically contains postal permit information, and appears in the same location in which a postage stamp would be applied.

Ink fountain

The reservoir on a printing press that holds the ink.

*Keylines

Lines on mechanical art that show position of photographs or illustrations.

Kiss cut

To die cut the top layer of a pressure sensitive sheet and not the backing.

Knock out

The portion of an image that does not print.

Laid finish

A surface characteristic of paper that mimics the feel of handmade paper.

Laminate

To cover with a polymer film, or to bond or glue one surface to another.

< strong>Layflat

See Eurobind.

Line copy

High-contrast copy or image not requiring the halftoning process. Also called line art.

Lines per inch

The number of rows of dots per inch in a halftone image.

Loupe

A magnifying glass used to review a printed image, proof, or printing plate.

Magenta

Process red, one of the subtractive primary colors in process color reproduction..

Make-ready

All the activities required to prepare a press for a print run.

Marginal words

Call-outs for directions on various parts of a business form.

Mask

Blocking the exposure of certain parts of a printing plate.

*Matchprint

Trade name for 3M integral color proof.

Matte finish

A duller appearance than gloss that reflects light, usually describes the surface characteristic of a printing paper, or a coating that is applied during the printing process.

*Mechanical

Camera-ready art that is contained on one board.

*Mechanical separation

An overlay for each color to be printed that is included in the mechanical artwork.

Micrometer

Instrument used to measure the thickness of different papers.

Middle tones

The tones in a photographic image that are approximately half as dark as the shadow area.

Moire

An image artifact that occurs when screen angles interfere with each other, and cause undesirable patterns.

Negative

The image on a printing plate that makes the white areas of originals black and black areas white.

Non-reproducing blue

A blue color that cameras and scanners cannot resolve.

Offsetting

Using an intermediate surface to transfer ink. Also, an undesirable printing artifact that occurs when the images on freshly-printed press sheets transfer ink to each other.

Offset paper

Term for uncoated text weight paper.

OK sheet

Final approved color inking sheet before production begins.

Opacity

A measure of image show-through on a printed sheet. The more opacity or the thicker the paper, the less show-through

Outline halftone

Removing the background of a picture or silhouetting of an image or picture.

*Overlay

The transparent cover sheet on artwork often used to indicate color breaks or instructions.

Overrun or Overs

Copies printed in excess of the specified quantity. Printing trade terms usually allow for +/ - 10 % of the originally specified quantity to comprise a completed order.

*Ozalid

The name of a company that manufactures and sells diazo process products and equipment that produces ammonia-based blueline prints. Ozalid proofs are most often used in Asia by printers as a proofing system. Most American and European printing companies use digital proofs.

Page count

The total number of pages in a book including blanks.

Pattern carbon

Special carbon paper used in business forms that only transfers a written image in certain areas.

Perfect bind

A type of binding that glues the edge of sheets to a cover, similar to a telephone book, Microsoft software manual, or paperback novel.

Perfecting press

A sheet-fed printing press that prints both sides of a press sheet in one pass.

Pica

Unit of measure in typesetting. One pica = 1/6 inch.

Picking

An undesirable printing artifact that occurs as the surface of a press sheet comes off during printing. This problem typically occurs as a result of a paper manufacturing defect.

Pin register

A system used to fit plates to press to ensure the proper registration of printed colors.

Plate gap

Also known as gripper space. The area where the grippers hold the press sheet as it passes through the press.

PMS

The abbreviated name of the Pantone Color Matching System.

*PMT

Abbreviated name for photo-mechanical transfer, a method used to make position proofs.

Point

For paper, a unit of thickness equaling 1/1000 inch and in typesetting, a unit of size equaling 1/72 inch.

PostScript

An industry standard computer language developed by Adobe Systems used in imaging and printing devices. The basic language used in the PDF (Portable Document Format) workflow.

Press number

A method of numbering business forms, race numbers, and tickets. Most commonly used in letterpress and digital printing workflows.

Pressure-sensitive paper

Paper or polymer material with self sticking adhesive covered by a backing sheet.

Process blue

Cyan, one of the subtractive primary colors used in process color reproduction.

Process colors

The subtractive primary colors used in four-color process printingcyan (process blue), magenta (process red), yellow (process yellow), and black (process black).

Ragged left

Type that is justified to the right margin leaving varied line lengths to the left.

Ragged right

Type that is justified to the left margin leaving varied line lengths to the right.

Ream

A sealed package of pre-cut paper, usually containing 500 sheets.

Recto

Right-hand page of an open book.

*Reflective copy

Copy that is not transparent.

Register

To position printed elements in the proper position in relation to the edge of the press sheet and to other elements and/or colors on the same press sheet.

Register marks

Cross-hair lines or marks on plates and paper that help guide plate makers, pressmen, and bindery personnel make correct decisions on how to manufacture printed products.

Reverse

The opposite of what you see. The reverse of this document would be a black piece of paper with a white name. See Negative.

RIP

An abbreviation for Raster Image Processor, a device which processes PostScript files into bitmap images. Frequently used to drive plate makers and digital presses.

Saddle stitch

Binding a booklet or magazine with staples in the seam where it folds.

Scanner

Device used to convert hard copy analog images into digital images. Scanners are most likely color scanners, but some specialized monochrome scanners are still used for scanning black and white images.

Score

A crease that is made onto a printed sheet that allows for improved quality of folding.

Screen angles

The angles at which halftones for the four process colors are placed to minimize moiré patterns and provide the best color reproduction quality.

Self-cover

A publication (booklet or magazine) that uses the same weight paper as the text (inner pages) for the cover.

Shadow

The darkest areas of a photographic image.

Show-through

Printed image on one side of a sheet that can be seen on the other side of the sheet. See Opacity.

Side guide

The mechanical device on a printing press that positions a press sheet a certain distance from the side of the paper path.

Side stitch

Binding by stapling along one edge of a collection of pages.

Signature

A sheet of printed pages or images which when folded and/or trimmed, become a part or whole of a book, publication, or other printed product.

Silhouette

A process whereby the subject of a photographic image is removed from the background, typically done in the Adobe Photoshop program.

Skid

A pallet used for storage or transport of a large pile of cut paper sheets.

Specifications

A set of data and information used in the manufacturing of a printed product.

Spine

The binding edge of a book, booklet, or other publication.

Split fountain

Putting more than one color of ink in a printing fountain to achieve special color effects.

Spoilage

Waste that occurs as a result of the manufacturing process. Spoilage may be planned or unplanned spoilage. Unplanned spoilage typically results from poor planning or from manufacturing errors.

Spot varnish

A coating that highlights a specific part of the printed sheet. Not to be confused with a Flood Varnish.

Stamping

Term for foil stamping.

Step-and-repeat

A process by which the same image is positioned on printing plates in multiple locations.

Stet

A proofreading mark indicating that the original copy should not change.

Stock

The material or substrate used for printing, usually paper.

*Stripping

The positioning of images prior to plate making.

Substance weight

A term of basis weight used when referring to bond papers.

Substrate

Any surface on which images are printed.

Text paper

Grades of uncoated paper with textured surfaces.

Tints

A shade of a single color or combined colors.

*Tissue Overlay

Usually a thin translucent paper placed over artwork for protection and used for marking color breaks and other instructions.

Transfer tape

A pressure-sensitive tape used in business forms.

Transparency

A positive photographic slide on film that allows light to pass through.

Transparent copy

A film that light must pass through in order for it to be reproduced.

Transparent ink

A printing ink that does not conceal the color under it. Process color inks are transparent inks.

Trapping

The ability to print one wet ink over another. Trapping also refers to the process by which adjacent colors are spread or shrunk in order to eliminate unprinted gaps between colors.

Trim marks

Similar to crop or register marks. These marks show where to trim the printed press sheet.

Trim size

The final size of a printed image after the last trim is made.

Under-run

Production of fewer copies than ordered. See Overs.

Up

Printing two or three up means printing multiple instances of the same image on the same sheet.

UV coating

Liquid polymer that is bonded and cured with ultraviolet light.

Varnish

A clear coating applied to printed images that improves durability and appearance.

Verso

The left hand page of an open book.

Vignette Halftone

A halftone whose background gradually fades to white.

Wash-up

Removing printing ink from a press, washing the rollers and blanket. Certain press operations require multiple wash-ups to avoid ink and chemical contamination.

Waste

A form of spoilage. See Spoilage.

Watermark

A distinctive image or mark created in paper at the time of manufacture that can be easily seen by holding the paper up to a light.

Web

A large roll of printing paper.

Web press

A type of presses that prints from rolls of paper.

Wire O

A bindery trade name for mechanical binding using double loops of wire through a set of punched holes.

Wire-O binding

A method of wire binding along that will allow the book to lay flat using double loops. See Wire O.

With the grain

Feeding paper into the press or folder parallel to the grain of the paper.

Work and Tumble

Printing one side of a sheet and turning it over from the gripper edge to the tail edge to print the second side using the same side guides and plate for the second side.

Work and Turn

Printing one side of a sheet and turning it over from left to right using the same side guides and plate for the second side.

Wove paper

A paper having a uniform unlined surface with a smooth finish.

Items marked with an asterisk (*) may be obsolete terms that are no longer in common use, but were included for historical accuracy.